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Guidelines for Exception Handling in Cardano SL

To determine the preferred way to handle exceptions in a piece of code, first answer these questions:

  1. Is this a programmer mistake or a regular error?
  2. Is the code 100% pure or potentially impure?

Depending on the answers, an appropriate approach can be selected.

Is this a programmer mistake or a regular error?

Programmer mistake

When a particular codepath is not meant to be ever executed, but happens to be executed anyway, this is a programmer mistake.

For instance, consider this piece of code:

-- Precondition (unchecked): input lists are the same length.
zipSameLen :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)]
zipSameLen [] [] = []
zipSameLen (a:as) (b:bs) = (a,b) : zipSameLen as bs
zipSameLen _ _ = error "Lists of different length, precondition violated!"

The zipSameLen function is meant to work on two lists of the same length, and calling it with lists of different length is a mistake on the programmer’s part. Code like zipSameLen [] [1] must be rejected at code review stage. However, the function still must have the zipSameLen _ _ case to have exhaustive pattern matching.

A function that can be used erroneously (has a potential for programmer mistakes) MUST have a comment that describes its preconditions. When it is called, the call MUST have an explanation that assures why these preconditions hold.

For instance, when a programmer calls Prelude.last xs, he must add a comment at this call site that explains why xs is guaranteed to be non-empty, even if it seems obvious. A better option is to use functions and types that don’t allow for errors: instead of Prelude.last one can use NonEmpty.last.

In case of zipSameLen we could use length-indexed vectors:

zipSameLen :: Vec n a -> Vec n b -> Vec n (a, b)

It is always a tradeoff whether to allow programmer mistakes, or do type-level trickery to avoid them. The decision process for this is out of scope of this document.

Regular error

Consider a function like readFile. It is entirely possible that the path passed to it may point to a file that does not exist, and the programmer can’t do anything to prevent this. Existence of a file is not a property of our code, it’s the property of the outside world, and we have to deal with all possible scenarios.

Another example is parsing user input. We might expect the user to enter a number, but we have to consider the case that the user enters something else.

In cases when the erroneous scenarios are out of our control, we consider these to be regular errors.

Identifying error class

Can the execution of the error codepath be excluded by code review and static verification (more precise types?)

  • Yes: it is a programmer mistake
  • No: it is a regular error

Is the code 100% pure or potentially impure?

Impure code

The code is considered impure when it’s an IO action, a function that returns an IO action, or similar. The code can be potentially impure when it is written in an abstract monad that can be instantiated to IO.

Definitely impure:

readFile :: FilePath -> IO String

Potentially impure:

lookupThrow :: MonadThrow m => Map k v -> k -> m v

Pure code

Pure code is one that does not use IO operations. For example:

lookupMaybe :: Map k v -> k -> Maybe v

Notice that while it is conceivable that we have a Map of IO actions, and instantiate lookupMaybe to Map k (IO ()) -> k -> Maybe (IO ()), the instantiation does not inspect/use these IO actions, so it’s not considered potentially impure.

Identifying code purity

Is there an instantiation of type parameters that would mean that there are IO actions inspected/used in the code?

  • Yes: it is potentially impure code
  • No: it is 100% pure code

Error handling practices

Pure code, programmer mistakes

Do not:

  • do this often, as if it’s okay
  • use undefined
  • use non-exhaustive pattern matching


  • try to use types to avoid the need in the first place
  • comment extensively (invariants and precondition, reasoning)
  • use the error function (or impureThrow with custom exception)
  • use the HasCallStack feature

Before writing code that allows programmer mistakes, consult with colleagues how it would be possible to prevent them statically. There might be tricks that you’re not aware of. Always make this trade-off conciously and responsibly.

(On the other hand, if static guarantees require GADTs or type families, perhaps it’s better to not overcomplicate code. Use your judgement.)

DISCUSSION: Should we create a synonym bug = impureThrow in Universum? This would make the intention more clear.

Pure code, regular errors

Do not:

  • use error or impureThrow
  • use MonadFail
  • return Either Text


  • return Either ErrorADT, Maybe
  • wrap the underlying (pure!) monad in ExceptT or CatchT
  • use MonadError or MonadThrow (methods of these classes). Note that if you define f :: MonadError m => m (), it won’t be pure

Consider parsing: it is pure, but we cannot make assumptions about the input. In this case we might want to use ExceptT ParseError. Or consider a lookup in a Map, where we don’t know whether the key is present — in this case we’d like to return Maybe v. In 100% pure code, use one of these ways to handle errors:

  • Maybe, Either e
  • MaybeT, ExceptT e
  • CatchT

Avoid using Text with the error message in place of e — create a proper ADT. In case creating a proper ADT feels too cumbersome, use CatchT, which is equivalent to ExceptT SomeException. Note, however, that using SomeException in pure code is not the best practice, because the set of all possible exceptions is statically known. Use it only if you are lazy to define yet another ADT.

Be careful not to use MaybeT, ExceptT, and CatchT in potentially impure code. When in doubt whether the code is potentially impure, use MonadThrow. (The reason we don’t want ExceptT and co. in potentially impure code is that they add additional exception mechanisms to the one that IO has, and catch/bracket don’t account for this).

[Potentially] Impure code, regular errors

Do not:

  • use error or impureThrow
  • use CatchT
  • use MonadError
  • use throwIO
  • return m (Either e a) if e has Exception instance


  • create a custom exception type
  • use throwM (MonadThrow)

If you want to return m (Either e a) from a function or to use ExceptT e m a, it’s required to define instance TypeError "NOT AN EXC" => Exception e for your type e. Do not use ExceptT e m a in exported top-level functions, convert to m (Either e a) using runExceptT. As of now, using ExceptT robs us of bracket, but this will be fixed in the next release of exceptions.

We disallow the use of throwIO only because it is redundant in the presence of throwM and requires a stronger constraint (MonadIO rather than MonadThrow). In code which lives directly in IO usage of throwIO is fine.

Derive prisms for exception types with multiple constructors, so it’s convenient to use them with catchJust.

[Potentially] Impure code, programmer mistakes

Use the same techniques as in pure code — error or impureThrow. There are two reasons for this:

  • we would rather catch the error sooner than later, and impureThrow explodes when forced to WHNF, while throwIO or throwM explode when executed

  • when in an abstract (but potentially impure) monad, using throwM might add an additional constraint

Packages and modules

Do not import Control.Exception or Control.Monad.Catch! We use the safe-exceptions to deal with asynchronous exceptions gracefully, so import Control.Exception.Safe.

Resource handling

Use bracket or to guarantee the release of resources. In case of concurrent code, avoid forkIO or forkProcess in favor of the async package, as it rethrows exceptions from the child threads. (Do not use the function async itself when you can use withAsync, race, or concurrently).

When resource usage is non-linear, it’s okay to use ResourceT, but prefer bracket whenever possible. Non-linear resource usage is anything that doesn’t fit into the “allocate, use, deallocate” pattern.


We should identify the parts of the code that use ExceptT or MonadError in impure or potentially impure code and replace them with exceptions. If code can be made pure by replacing MonadError with simple Either, we should do this replacement. For instance, mkMultiKeyDistr :: MonadError Text m => Map StakeholderId CoinPortion -> m AddrStakeDistribution becomes mkMultiKeyDistr :: Map StakeholderId CoinPortion -> Either Text AddrStakeDistribution

We should find where errors which are not programmer mistakes are thrown with error, undefined, or impureThrow, and rewrite them to use correct error handling method. This includes usages of partial functions, such as read.

We should find where errors are represented by Text and create dedicated data types to represent them.

We should find places where preconditions/invariants are not reflected in the comments, and add comments.

Code references

This list is not exhaustive:

  • TxpGlobalVerifyMode: — MonadError in potentially impure code
  • MonadRecoveryInfo: — ExceptT in impure code
  • TBD


The following documents were used to create these guidelines: